An object connected, or integrated into an IoT network, is an object that communicates without human intervention. By definition, it interacts with the real world via its sensors and actuators, but also with other objects, with applications, or with users.
An object is said to be intelligent if it is able to collect data, process it autonomously, transmit it and store it.
The world of IoT encompasses all the systems and services relating to the design and use of these new objects: networks, servers, cloud, etc.
Launching an IoT project requires mastering the phase of collecting, processing and storing IoT data.
One of the main characteristics of a connected object is the presence of sensors. These devices allow the device to capture data and output it. They record a physical phenomenon to transcribe it into digital data.
The sensors can be motion, vibration, pressure, light, noise, humidity, temperature, etc. They allow the object to perceive its surroundings.
Connected objects record and transmit data in real time. They generate massive amounts of data. To process large volumes of data, IoT devices must be linked to analytical tools such as Big Data.
Devices alone do not provide additional functionality. It is necessary to use Big Data solutions to process and analyze the thousands of data exchanged, in real time and / or in deferred time.
It is the cross-referencing and processing of all the data collected that is a source of value for the company.
Take the example of a connected thermostat. It measures the temperature of your office at 19 ° C. It geolocates your smartphone within 5 kilometers. It will start the heating to reach the 20 ° C requested during its programming.
UA single data (it is 19 ° C) does not trigger any action. But if it is combined with other information (you are less than 5km away), the IoT application is activated: heating is started.
The second characteristic of a smart object is its ability to communicate over a network. The connection can be short or long distance: point to point, M2M type or open to the Internet.
The emergence of networks designed for IoT, offering long range and low transport costs, with reduced energy consumption, has allowed the market to explode. LoRaWAN® or Sigfox meet the needs of this market, namely the periodic transmission of small amounts of data. 4G / LTE-M, NB-IoT and 5G cellular networks are a response to a growing demand from the Internet of Things world for faster and larger data exchanges.
An IoT project needs to be thought through according to the communication protocol best suited to your connected object and its use. The same goes for storage and processing solutions.
Once collected and transmitted, this data is stored and processed on servers which can be installed on the company's own site or in the operator's network - this is called edge-computing - or on the servers of the company. cloud platforms. The architecture thus distributed adapts to the size and constraints of your project, as well as to its evolution over time.
Finally, data retention management must be in compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The law provides that the data "are kept in a form allowing the identification of the persons concerned for a period which does not exceed the period necessary for the purposes for which they are collected and processed".
Cybersecurity is a major challenge in the expansion of the IoT world. With more than ten billion connected objects, the data collected and stored is a gold mine for professionals, industries but also for hackers.
In order to minimize the risks of the Internet of Things, several levels of security are taken into account:
The development of new computer and digital technologies has revolutionized the world of IoT. It is essential to use systems to control and secure personal data exchanged and stored, while respecting the legal framework.