The LoRa Alliance has defined several roaming methods:

• Hand-over roaming: as for smartphones, the object is connected to the destination operator’s network, but is still managed by the home operator. This type of roaming is not compatible with LoRaWAN v.1.0, which uses almost all the objects deployed

• Passive Roaming: the object remains connected to its original operator, with one or more networks in the country visited transferring the data to it. Transmission can be direct and without checks (stateless) or by authorisation (stateful). Stateless mode was used for the roaming tests between KPN and Orange, for example.