ADR can be used to act on the device’s emitting power (TX Power) and Spreading Factor (SF), and with Version 3, the number of message repetitions. This combination can be used to achieve the best compromise between range and energy consumption. In automatic (ADR) mode, each object, where necessary, receives instructions to use an SF and number of repetitions that will optimise the compromise between radio coverage (and expected service quality) and battery life. For example, an object close to a LoRaWAN™ gateway (very good reception) will be instructed to use a low Spreading Factor (SF 7) and not to repeat application messages. Conversely, an object at the edge of coverage will be instructed to use a higher SF and/or to repeat messages. Orange recommends using this automatic mode, for fixed objects, where radio conditions do not vary too much or sporadically. In manual mode the device selects the Spreading Factor and any repetition, generally in a stable fashion. This mode is highly recommended for devices that are on the move. The typical value is SF10.